DNA Profiling Around the World

DNA Profiling Around the World

Have you ever heard of the term DNA fingerprinting while watching movies?  DNA fingerprinting is also called DNA typing, DNA profiling, genetic fingerprinting, genotyping, or identity testing and according to Britannica, it is a method of isolating and identifying variable elements within the base-pair sequence of DNA (deoxyribonucleic acid). You might be curious about how it is done because it is a very amazing process where you could actually identify people. Many of us might already know a little bit about this but let us know more by reading further. More information can be found on Mapmygenes product page on dna profiling here http://www.mapmygene.com/services/disease-susceptibility-test/

Sarah Friedl will tell us more about DNA fingerprinting and its process and uses. Let us read below.

What is DNA Fingerprinting? – Process & Uses

DNA fingerprinting is a very useful technique that has applications beyond criminal and forensic analysis. In this lesson you’ll learn what DNA fingerprinting is, how it is done, and different ways it can be used to determine identity.

What is DNA Fingerprinting?

You DNA is very special because it is what makes you, you. Unless you have an identical twin, no one else has the same DNA as you. This genetic identification comes from your parents – half from mom and half from dad. But no matter how many kids your parents have, your DNA will always be unique from everyone else’s.

And this is what makes DNA fingerprinting such a useful tool: it allows us to identify an individual from biological samples. It’s called ‘fingerprinting’ because, just like identifying an individual based on the unique patterns we find on their fingers, we identify an individual based on the unique ‘fingerprint’ of their DNA. Because of this, you may have also heard it called DNA profiling or identity testing. Read more here.

            Information about what is DNA fingerprinting, how it works, and its uses are provided above.  In India, there has been news about the Indian parliament which will soon discuss a bill regarding forensic DNA profiling. Nature Research will tell us more about in the DNA profiling in India through their article below.

DNA profiling in India

The forensic successes of DNA profiling are undeniable. When used correctly, patterns obtained from short tandem repeats in genomic DNA can indicate, with high probability, whether it is likely that an individual (or their relative) was present at a crime scene or left traces on a victim’s body. DNA profiles can also rule out that crime-related samples came from a particular individual. The technology has been used both to solve crimes and to exonerate the innocent. But there have also been reports of wrong convictions based on DNA evidence. No method is free of all error.

DNA profiling is now widely used around the globe. The Forensic Genetics Policy Initiative (FGPI), an organization that promotes debate on the human rights implications of DNA profiling, lists 60 countries that maintain national DNA databases, including the United Kingdom and the United States, and 34 countries that plan to introduce them. India is part of the latter group. The bill up for discussion will affect how the Indian database is generated, maintained, secured and used. Read more here.

India is ensuring that their DNA profiling will be both effective and ethical. They are also making sure that the benefits are to be balanced against the protection of citizens’ rights that is why there is still an ongoing debate about it.

On a different topic, let try to see if DNA tests can discover your child’s talents. Let us read about it through Rachel Chan’s article below.

Can DNA Test ‘Discover’ Your Child’s Talents?

NEW service touted as Singapore’s first DNA test to predict kids’ talents is barely three months old, but it has already raised some eyebrows.

Called Kids Innate Talent Genetic Discovery, it was brought in by local health-marketing services firm DNA Dynasty, whose contracted laboratory is Shanghai Biochip in Pudong, China.

It also offers the DNA Diseases Susceptibility Test, which it claims can identify up to 100 diseases that one could potentially inherit genetically.

The firm will be officially launched only on Nov 15, but 90 people have already been tested, among whom 20 took the Genetic Discovery Test, said chief executive officer Johnner Tan.Read more here.

Looking forward to a DNA test which could discover or determine your child’s talents. Wouldn’t it be exciting to have that? The Kids Innate Talent Genetic Discovery also identify up to 100 diseases which could possibly be genetically inherited. That again is another wonderful thing about them. DNA profiling is really something that contributed a lot in many fields. It has helped a lot and I am sure that it will help more people in the future with all its purposes and uses.

Some a Level Chemistry Tuition Tips From A Level Chemistry Tuition Experts

Some a Level Chemistry Tuition Tips From A Level Chemistry Tuition Experts

A level chemistry is the basis of chemistry. It is the foundation where advanced chemistry is built upon. It studies the atmospheric world (chemicals, gases liquids crystals, etc.).

To make it clear, why candle wax melts when in high temperature, why water evaporates when heated, why detergents get warm when we add little amount of water to it?.

Chemistry is involved in our environmental activities, and our daily lives are connected to chemistry. Even our body and anatomy. Like the organs, the hormones, the blood, the urine and excrete e.t.c

Chemistry is involved in various manufacturing sectors, from the making of drugs to the making of weapons, automobiles.

A level chemistry topics typically cover a broad range of foundational concepts such: metals and nonmetals, study of period tables, studying and knowing the mass and atomic numbers of elements, for example (1) physical chemistry (2) transition of metals (3) foundations in chemistry.

Know the topics involved in A level chemistry

Among all these topics, you will also need to understand the facts and make a body of knowledge, but also understand and utilize the ideas learned. Chemistry like many other science courses involves knowledge of mathematics (calculation) and the use of formulas and equations. However, chemistry is an experimental science, and you will have to carry out experiments on a regular basis.

This is to understand your theory work better. It also gives you the privilege to use and explore new apparatus and build your skills and confidence level to execute safe and excellent practical work.

What tuition enrollment will I need?

A level chemistry education requires interest, enthusiasm, and commitment to the course. You will need an active school enrollment. The tuition(fees) may vary to various environmental circumstances. Tuitions vary depending on the school. For example, Private schools are more expensive than public schools, which are the more reason why we can see the significant number in a population of the public school as opposed to the private schools.

What career can an A level chemistry lead me to?

Chemistry is on the list of the must have subjects. With its wide range of tested skills, it is an important choice for many fields and careers today. If we leave physics apart automatically, Chemistry takes the lead of being central to the world at large and science. Moreover, it is mostly combined with either biology or physics.

However, it is a suitable choice for anyone dreaming of studying medicine, pharmacy, pharmacology as well as chemistry based degrees.

Is A Level Chemistry a 1-year course?

It may not feel good to say, but it can be possible to get your A level chemistry tuition for one full year if and only you possess a solidly grounded in GCSE science. Also, a successful track record of post-GCSE study.

You will need to be dedicated and focused as well as have the time to complete a great deal of work outside lesson time.

On the other hand, if you need to have a second sitting for a level chemistry tuition to improve your grade, the 1-year course is likely to be just what you need.

Develop a review program

Once you have gone through the above steps, you would need to develop to draw up a review program. Research shows that the most common sessions of 20-30 minutes work better because their concentration is much greater. Also, setting a deadline will allow you to be more focused.

So, at the beginning of a 20-30 minute session, decide what to review and how much you want to cover at the end, then take a brief 5-minute break before starting the next session.

Leading a Healthy Life with the Help of DNA Testing

Leading a Healthy Life with the Help of DNA Testing

Tests have become a part of the medical field because only with the help of tests, physicians and healthcare professionals diagnose diseases and try to provide the right type of treatments. There is another very important benefit from tests and especially, DNA testing and it is this test can help you lead a healthy life. Let us delve deep into this so you can keep a few points in mind while deciding whether to go for a DNA test.

Benefits of a DNA test

1. With the help of a DNA test, you can know how your body will respond to various types of foods and exercises. Simply put, it is your gene that determines the way your body responds to the foods you consume and the workouts you do. If you get your DNA tested, you can go for a uniquely customized diet regimen as well as an exercise regimen that suits you. This also means that by choosing a diet regimen or a workout regimen that is perfectly suited to you, you will be able to increase their efficacy by several notches.

Researchers have proved that by getting a mouth swab carried out as soon as you wake up in the morning and before you venture into the task of brushing of your teeth, scan gene variants and more specifically, 45 of them, can be scanned so the response of your body to various types of foods and exercises can be found. You can find out the sensitivity of your body to carbohydrates, saturated fats, salt, gluten and lactose. You can also find out your intolerance risk towards items such as gluten. The test will help you know your needs of vitamins and anti-oxidants and also your caffeine metabolism and alcohol metabolism.

2. If you are a fitness freak, you can find out if you can go for endurance sports such as swimming, running or cycling or choose power sports such as weight-lifting or sprinting. The test will help you know your Vo2 max or the aerobic potential. You may wonder what benefits you will derive by knowing these facts. The answer to this question is that they will let you find out how quickly your body can recover from your workouts.

Fitness experts nowadays insist on recovery of the body after workouts because only if your body fully recovers from the stress of your strenuous workout, you can carry on with your day-to-day work. Not only that, if you allow your body to remain fatigued after a strenuous workout, you will not be able to do your workouts during the next sessions.

Are DNA tests accurate so you can have the diet and workout regimens that are best-suited to you?

Experts opine that the results of a DNA test that is targeted towards the aim of customizing a suitable diet regimen or a workout regimen are fairly accurate. For example, the test will help in knowing the response of the body of a person to saturated fats. For this, the test has to focus on the “fat gene” or the FTO gene, in which there are three types.

Researchers have found that the body of those people who have the AA variant may store body fat more readily when they consume saturated fats. On the contrary, those with the AT type of the fat gene are only moderately sensitive which means their body may not readily store fat when they consume saturated fats. But the folks who have the TT type are the blessed because their body may have a very low sensitivity which means their body may not store fat even when they consume saturated fats.

Similarly, DNA testing can help in finding the response of your body to other types of foods and other types of activities as well. This means you can use the results of a DNA test for designing a suitable fitness regimen as well as a diet regimen so you can lead a healthy life.

Procedure to file a Public Liability Insurance claim in Singapore

Procedure to file a Public Liability Insurance claim in Singapore

Public liability insurance is a commercial type of insurance that offers protection from lawsuits that a customer or a third party might file against a business for causing personal injuries or damage to their property. For example, a company damages an expensive piece of furniture while renovating a customer’s house. The customer can sue the company for the cost of the furniture. Another example of public liability is when a customer slips and falls on the wet floor of a retail store and suffers an injury. In the case where the injury affects the customer’s daily routine, a lawsuit can be filed against the retail store, claiming damages.

Before purchasing public liability insurance, it is an excellent strategy to take the following measures to reduce the risk of facing a public liability.

  • Develop a set of safety procedures and document them. An organised set of safety procedures reduces the risk of public liability and, in the event of any unfortunate incident resulting in the filing of a lawsuit, shows that the defendant has been taking appropriate measures to ensure public safety.
  • Train your employees to follow the safety procedures effectively.
  • Use equipment that is of the best available quality.
  • Obtain a license to do a job that requires a license.

In spite of the best safety procedures, an incident can occur that leads to the filing of a public liability lawsuit. A public liability insurance policy that offers the best protection for the risks faced by your business will help build customer confidence. If anything unfortunate happens, the customer is assured that adequate compensation is available. Also the damages to be paid in a public liability lawsuit can be very high.

After any incident that requires the filing of a claim to obtain public liability insurance Singapore, notify the insurance company immediately. Contact the police if there is a possibility that a crime has occurred.

Provide the following documents as required to the insurance company while submitting the claim form:

  1. Incident report
  2. Police report
  3. Colour photographs of property that is damaged and the location where the incident took place.
  4. CCTV footage of the incident, if available
  5. Letter of intention to claim from the third party claimant.
  6. Writ of Summons
  7. If the damaged property has been repaired, the invoice from the repairing company.


It is crucial to remember not to admit any liability before obtaining the written consent of the insurance company. Avoid discussing anything related to liability with the third party without a legal representative.

Keep your Premiums up to Date

Keep your Premiums up to Date

Forgetting to pay for a service that is due for a renewal can cause financial stress down the line. For instance, if your premiums are not paid on time, you can lose out in case of an emergency. Most insurance providers ping their clients with a reminder, but in case you do not get the reminder in time, keep a diary so that you are not caught on the wrong foot. In the case of professional indemnity insurance for a small or big business, it is vital to pay the premiums on time.

You never know who can slap you with a claim, leaving you and the business vulnerable and open to a lousy rep and financial ruin. It does take time to get the policy right, and while the premiums can get high, it is advantageous to renew them in time. An attitude of ‘this may not happen to me so why pay for something that is unnecessary’ is so wrong, because you just never know what is lurking out there. By keeping your eye on the ball, you will be prepared for any bad press, which is essential today. 

A professional indemnity insurance policy keeps the business in check from prospective claims, should they arise. Quite a number of people make it their business to file claims against a firm because of a number of reasons. Instead of finding yourself or the business in the line of fire, it is better to stay on point. Breach of contract or improper advice by a service provider to a client is a cause where the individual or business can file a claim. Aside from the fact that the damages may hit the ceiling, running from pillar to post to get suitable counsel can take a lot out of you.

Being prudent with keeping your business taken care of with the right insurance policy as detailed on the website www.allegiance.com.sg will keep you free from facing crazy economic losses. Naturally, one may say that if the advice given was good advice, why worry about a lawsuit? Many businesses have faced the wrath of employees who have filed cases against them for a variety of reasons. This opens the doors to an out-of-court settlement so that the firm does not have to deal with unnecessary negative publicity. With the right insurance cover in place, the business can protect itself without going south.professional_indemnity_insurance_main_banner_1_v2

Different Terms In Marine Insurance That Are Interesting To Know

Different Terms In Marine Insurance That Are Interesting To Know

Like any other subject, the insurance is an ocean to learn. For someone who is new to this kind of business, where the trade has to happen between nations as sea or ocean as the medium of transport, there are numerous words to learn from the dictionary of marine insurance. Enhance your business vocabulary with a few terms related to this subject. Who knows, they might come handy as and when required in a situation that meets with the venture over marine.

Interesting terminology – Few of these terms might sound so general, it feels like it was used on regular basis. But, try finding the meanings related to marine insurance which might help in coping up the scenario.

The terms are ATL – A- Actual, T-Total, L-Loss, CTL – C-Constructive, T-Total, L-Loss, General average, average, franchise, co-insurance, retention, deductible, and excess.

Learn in-depth

ATL and CTL are useful in determining the loss that happened to a cargo, and these two acts act as proof to separate the loss. Actual Loss is when the damage happened is equal to the value or exceeds from real property value. Constructive loss is when both the cost of loss and salvage together can match the value or exceed. It helps in proper assessment of the damage happened in a situation.

Actual Total Loss = [Cost of damage or loss > (or) = property value] Constructive Total Loss = [Cost of (repairs + salvage) > (or) = property value]

General average – It is different from the department that covers marine insurance. To declare general average, there should be some event that has happened out of the ship owner’s control, voluntary sacrifice, some of the property saved. It is a typical clause provided for such a situation.

Average – Average can identify if a good is insured lesser than it’s worth. It can reduce payable amount of the claim.

Excess – In a situation where loss happens, the amount that is payable by the insurance.

Franchise – It is the least amount of damage or loss that should be paid by the policy holder even before the insurance company covers the policy limit.

Co-insurance – This is an amount that should be paid by the individual for any type of service provided by the respective insurance company after paying the deductible.

Retention – In case of no-insurance for the loss happened, assumption of risk is termed as retention.

Deductible – Before an insurer pays the coverage of the claim, some amount needs to be paid by the individual for the loss.

Meaning of Corporate Insurance

Meaning of Corporate Insurance

Imagine a situation where you suddenly find that you have lost all your money. Imagine a situation where you realize that your business is running at a loss and you are in dire need of finances to keep it afloat. Imagine a situation where you have met with an accident or is going through a prolonged treatment and you need a constant flow of cash to ensure that the treatment does not face any impediment. How do you ensure that you always have a financial support system, both personally and professionally? It is in such situations that you need an insurance. An insurance is a way of protecting yourself from financial loss.

A legal entity that provides the insurance is usually known as the insurer. It is also known as an insurance agency or insurance company. The person or company that buys the insurance is known as the policyholder as the person or company is duly insured. The insured pays a small amount as interest to the insurer with the assurance that in case of monetary loss, the insurer will compensate the insured. The small amount that is paid like an interest is known as the premium.

Corporate Insurance:

A corporate insurance is an insurance that protects business from financial losses due to some unforeseen circumstances that may take place during the course of the business. In corporate insurance coverage, there are different types of insurance that cover different types of monetary damage, like legal liability, damage to property, risks that may be posed to the employees during their tenure in the company

In places where there is a lot of business happening, there are many agencies that provide corporate insurance. Corporate insurance in Singapore is very common. There are many companies, big and small, that operate from Singapore. They are dealing with huge amount of capital investments and revenues every day. Thus corporate insurance in Singapore is very important to ensure that the companies are insured from any kind of monetary loss that may lead to bankruptcy and thereby closing down of the business.

One business is linked to another in one way or another. Thus, the closing down of one business will affect another business in an adverse manner. In this manner the web of corporate setup will have to endure many ripples that will disrupt the smooth running of business. Thus corporate insurance is very important in a corporate setup.

Western Ch’an Fellowship

Western Ch’an Fellowship

If you are new to Ch’an or to the WCF then please use the top two links on the menu on the left to find out more.

On this site there is much original material.

Under the Retreats link you will find details of our Retreat Centre and our Retreat Programme, and reports by past participants of their experience of retreat. You can also read about our retreat cooks and their cooking

The Local Meditation Groups link will take you to a page with information about and contact details for our local meditation groups around the UK.

Under the Resources link you will find past and current issues of our journals and newsletters, some sutras and other literature, Dharma talks, the complete text of one of Master Sheng Yen’s books, poetry, photos, artwork, and book reviews. Also there are other documents such as a recommended Buddhist Reading List, our constitution, links to other sites with significant Buddhist resources, and more.

The People link takes you to information about our teachers and their lineage, officers of the WCF, affiliated organisations, other WCF contact details, etc.